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Q&A- Computer Studies

Syntax errors-Incorrect use of programming language

Logical errors- The program do not give the expected output

Runtime errors- Premature end of a program

  • A compiler translates the whole program in one go whereas An interpreter translates each line of code (often an intermediate code) at run time
  • A compiler produces an executable file that will run on the target hardware machine without the compiler being installed  A run time interpreter will be required at run time
  • Compilers tend to be large complex programs Interpreters are smaller simpler programs
  • Interpreted programs can be amended and run without translating whole program Compiled programs have to be re-compiled after a change
  • Compilers compile programs that will usually only run on the target platform (hardware/operating system)  Interpreters will interpret same program (or intermediate code) on different (some virtual) platforms
  • Editor: this allows a programmer to enter and edit source code
  • Automatic formatting:  Correctly indents code
  • Automatic colour coding:  Changes key words, literals and annotation to different colours
  • Linker: this is a program which allows previously compiled code, from software libraries, to be linked together
  • Loader: this is a program which loads previously compiled code into memory.
  • Debugger: this is a program which helps locate, identify and rectify errors in a program
  • Syntax error detection:  Highlighting syntax errors before code is translated
  • Trace: this is a facility which displays the order in which the lines of a program are executed, and possibly the values of variables as the program is being run
  • Break point: this is a facility which interrupts a program on a specific line of code, allowing the programmer to compare the values of variables against expected values.  The program code can then usually be executed one line at a time.  This is called single-stepping
  • Variable watch: this is a facility which displays the current value of any variable.  The value can be 'watched' as the program code is single-stepped to see the effects of the code on the variable.  Alternatively a variable watch may be set, which will interrupt the program flow if the watched variable reaches a specified value
  • Memory inspector: this is a facility which will display the contents of a section of memory
  • Error diagnostics: these are used when a program fails to compile or to run.  Error messages are displayed to help the programmer diagnose what has gone wrong
  • Emulator: will provide and emulator to run the code/app so no physical device required
  • Context sensitive menu:  SDE suggests available options
  • Statement completion:  SDE will complete a statement such as adding an ‘end if’ to an ‘if’ statement GUI creation:  Allows programmer to create a GUI by dragging and dropping controls (buttons, etc...) onto a form.
  • Publisher: facility to package up and deploy program as an easy to install package

 A single executable file is produced 

The executable program is portable between machines

The program source code is not available

Code can be optimised/made more efficient 

Entire source code file is converted at once

No special environment is needed to execute the code 

It creates object/machine code

Error report is provided at the end of the compilation

1.State two reasons for the increased use of laptop computers in government offices. [2]

They are small and fit in a small storage space

They are light weight hence can be carried to areas where their services are required

The monitor, system unit, keyboard units are integrated together

Easy to share

Have rechargeable battery

Have low power consumption

2.Computer network technicians prefer to use command-line based operating systems when configuring networks. State three reasons for the preference. [3]

Do not take up a lot of memory

Have direct access to most hardware devices/provide complete control during configuration

Cheaper to acquire as some are freeware/shareware

Faster to execute commands

Difficult to hack/more secure

More stable

3.State three measures that should be put in place in a computer laboratory to safeguard users’ health. [3]

 

  • All power cables must be insulated and hidden from users
  • Furniture used must be of standard
  • Room should have adequate lighting
  • No overcrowding
  • Monitor should be fitted with anti glare
  • Avoid dust
  • Avoid slippery floor
  • Avoid bright coloured walls
  • Promote use of ergonomic devices

 

4.State three ways in which barcode readers may be used in schools. [3]

Take inventory of items

Transactions in the school library

Keep track of movement of goods

Track students in and out of school

Used to register roll call

5.State three advantages of flat panel monitors over cathode ray tube monitors as used in computers.                                                                                                                     [3]

  • Compact and light/portable/less bulky/occupy less space
  • Consume less power
  • Low angle distortion
  • Improved color depth
  • Higher resolution
  • Have less radiation
  • Produce less heat

 

6.State three possible reasons for the extinction of daisy wheel printers in the market. [3]

  • Slow
  • Noisy
  • Lack of graphic support
  • Monochrome printer
  • Supported on font type and size

 

 

7.State three ways in which an operating system secures a computer system.             [3]

  • User authentication
  • Secure user accounts with privileges
  • Encryption of data
  • Keeping log files
  • Auto backup and auto recovery features
  • Inbuilt antivirus

 

8.A law firm prefers to use hard copy output when handling documents for legal matters. State two reasons for this preference.                                                            [2]

  • Can be used without electricity
  • Can serve as physical evidence/exhibit
  • Not easy to change content without leaving evidence
  • No need of computer knowledge

9.State the function of each of the following feature in a word processor

a. Thesaurus                                                                                                                    [1]

Feature that suggests words with similar or opposite meanings to the selected word

b. Comments                                                                                                                   [1]

Feature that allows a user to attach remarks

10. With the aid of an example, explain the term multi-level list as used in word processing.                                                                                                                [3]

  1. Chapter 10
    1. Summary
      1. xxxxxxxx

Formatting style that shows listed items at different level instead of using one line

11. Distinguish between real-time operating system and distributed operating system. [3]

Accept answers based on data processing concept

12. Explain the function of protect sheet feature in a spreadsheet program.                   [2]

A tool/feature that prevents unwanted changes to the spreadsheet. Requires a user to key in a password inorder to make changes

13. State four computer based careers introduced as a result of computerized data processing method at the airport.                                                                                     [2]

  • System analysts
  • Web designers
  • Network administrators
  • Network technicians
  • Programmers
  • Database Administrators

NB/ Accept any computer based career

14. In a spreadsheet, the formula = If(A1>10,A1*77,A1*50) is entered in a cell. Interpret the results.                                                                                                                        [3]

Checks the value in cell A1if it is more than 10, if the comparison is true then the outcome of the value in cell multiplied by 77 is displayed, else if it is false the results of the value in cell A1 multiplied by 50 are displayed.

15. State a stage in systems development cycle where each of the following activities are carried out:

a. Identifying the technologies that may be used in a proposed system.                       [1]

Accept any sub stage within system analysis e.g. requirement specification, problem definition, information gathering, etc

b. Identifying shortcomings of a system.                                                                       [1]

All stages of system development

 

c. Preparing the system migration plan.                                                                          [1]

 

Implementation stage

Answer question 16 and any other three questions from this section in the spaces provided.

16. a) With the aid of a flow chart, describe a loop control structure as used in programming. [4]  

A control structure that allows statement(s) to be repeatedly executed until a certain condition is met                                                                                                      2mks

NB. Accept any other looping construct

b) Study the following pseudocode and answer the questions that follow.

1. Start

2. Get Value1 and Value2

3. If Value1> Value2 Then

4. Maximum = Value1

5. Else If Value1< Value2 Then

6. Maximum = Value2

7. Else Go to 9

8. Display Maximum

9. Stop

i) State the purpose of the pseudocode                                                                                  [1]

To compare two values and output the greater of the two

ii) Draw a flowchart equivalent to the pseudocode.                                                                     [8]

c) Distinguish between a source program and a compiler as used in computer programming. [2]

Source program is the original program in a high level language as written by the programmer while a compiler is a program translator that converts source program to object code.

17. a) i) Explain the term search as used in the Internet.                                            [2]

A web based application that locates items or information from the World Wide Web

ii) Peter intends to download a movie from the Internet. State the three factors that may determine the total time taken to complete the download.                                           [3]

  • Size of the video/format
  • The bandwidth of the media/speed of network/network traffic
  • Type of browser software
  • Background activities running in the computer
  • Restrictions enforced in the computer/firewall/antivirus
  • Speed of the computer/CPU speed
  • Size of RAM

b) Wakulima online is an organization that runs a web based system for assisting farmers to obtain market for their produce. State four technological reasons that may cause a farmer not to access the organization’s system.                                                                                  [4]

  • Poor network/lack of connection
  • Software failure in the system
  • Hardware failure
  • Lack of access rights
  • System overload/hanging
  • Lack of skills/disability/illiteracy
  • Lack of power supply

c) Explain a situation when each of the following Desktop Publishing program features may be used when creating a publication:

i. Cropping                                                                                                               [2]

Applies to graphics – used to trim/remove/hide some portions in the graphics

ii. Transparency                                                                                                         [2]

Used to make background of a graphic to be clear/visible

d. List two areas where infrared waves are used in data communication.                             [2]

18. a) List four activities of the planning stage of systems development.                             Ignore this question, marks redistributed elsewhere

b) Explain a circumstance when each of the following feasibility studies are carried out during systems development.

i. Technical                                                                                                               [3]

Done to determine whether technology exists to support the proposed solution

 

ii. Economic                                                                                                              [3]

Done to determine whether the proposed solution is economically viable

 

iii. Schedule                                                                                                               [3]

Done to determine whether the proposed system can be done within an acceptable time.

c) Table 1 and Table 2 are related tables in a database. Use them to answer the questions that follow.

Table 1

Dept Code

Dept Name

001

Computer

002

Aviation

003

Engineering

 

Table 2

DeptID

Student Registration No.

Student’s Name

002

St01

Alex Too

003

St02

Naomi Komi

002

St03

Peter Kengo

 

i. Identify the appropriate primary key for each table.                    [2]

Table 1 – Dept code, Student Registration No

ii. Explain two benefits of enforcing referential integrity in the database. [4]

  • No record can be added in Table 2 if its corresponding record in Table 1 does not exist
  • No record in Table 1 can be deleted without first deleting the corresponding record in Table 2
  • Reduces data redundancies/ensures integrity
  • Prevents deletion of related table

19. a) Describe each of the following validation checks as used in data processing.

i. Preserve check                                                                                                      [2]

Ignore this question, marks redistributed elsewhere

ii. Data type check                                                                                                    [2]

Ensure correct type of data is entered for the field

iii. Check digit                                                                                                           [2]

This is a number added/calculated by the computer to a binary number. The check digit ensures correct transmission of the binary number.

b. Write each of the following abbreviations in full:

i) BCD                                                                                                                                    [1½]

Binary Coded Decimal

ii) EBCD                                                                                                                                 [

This question was thrown out and marks redistributed elsewhere

iii) ASCII                                                                                                                    [1½]

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

c) Using 10-bits binary number system, perform the following decimal operation using two’s complement.                                                                                                                                   [6]

12910 - 12810

+129 = 00 1000 0001

128 = 00 1000 0000

-128 = 11 0111 1111 (ones complement)

                            +1

          11 1000 0000 (Twos complement)

129- 128

     00 1000 0001

+ 11 1000 0000

 100 0000 0001

Hence = 00 0000 00012 or 12 (the overflow bit is ignored)

17. a) i) Explain the term search as used in the Internet.                                            [2]

A web based application that locates items or information from the World Wide Web

ii) Peter intends to download a movie from the Internet. State the three factors that may determine the total time taken to complete the download.                                           [3]

  • Size of the video/format
  • The bandwidth of the media/speed of network/network traffic
  • Type of browser software
  • Background activities running in the computer
  • Restrictions enforced in the computer/firewall/antivirus
  • Speed of the computer/CPU speed
  • Size of RAM

b) Wakulima online is an organization that runs a web based system for assisting farmers to obtain market for their produce. State four technological reasons that may cause a farmer not to access the organization’s system.                                                                                  [4]

  • Poor network/lack of connection
  • Software failure in the system
  • Hardware failure
  • Lack of access rights
  • System overload/hanging
  • Lack of skills/disability/illiteracy
  • Lack of power supply

c) Explain a situation when each of the following Desktop Publishing program features may be used when creating a publication:

i. Cropping                                                                                                               [2]

Applies to graphics – used to trim/remove/hide some portions in the graphics

ii. Transparency                                                                                                         [2]

Used to make background of a graphic to be clear/visible

d. List two areas where infrared waves are used in data communication.                             [2]

18. a) List four activities of the planning stage of systems development.                             Ignore this question, marks redistributed elsewhere

b) Explain a circumstance when each of the following feasibility studies are carried out during systems development.

i. Technical                                                                                                               [3]

Done to determine whether technology exists to support the proposed solution

 

ii. Economic                                                                                                              [3]

Done to determine whether the proposed solution is economically viable

 

iii. Schedule                                                                                                               [3]

Done to determine whether the proposed system can be done within an acceptable time.

c) Table 1 and Table 2 are related tables in a database. Use them to answer the questions that follow.

Table 1

Dept Code

Dept Name

001

Computer

002

Aviation

003

Engineering

 

Table 2

DeptID

Student Registration No.

Student’s Name

002

St01

Alex Too

003

St02

Naomi Komi

002

St03

Peter Kengo

 

i. Identify the appropriate primary key for each table.                    [2]

Table 1 – Dept code, Student Registration No

ii. Explain two benefits of enforcing referential integrity in the database. [4]

  • No record can be added in Table 2 if its corresponding record in Table 1 does not exist
  • No record in Table 1 can be deleted without first deleting the corresponding record in Table 2
  • Reduces data redundancies/ensures integrity
  • Prevents deletion of related table

19. a) Describe each of the following validation checks as used in data processing.

i. Preserve check                                                                                                      [2]

Ignore this question, marks redistributed elsewhere

ii. Data type check                                                                                                    [2]

Ensure correct type of data is entered for the field

iii. Check digit                                                                                                           [2]

This is a number added/calculated by the computer to a binary number. The check digit ensures correct transmission of the binary number.

b. Write each of the following abbreviations in full:

i) BCD                                                                                                                                    [1½]

Binary Coded Decimal

ii) EBCD                                                                                                                                 [

This question was thrown out and marks redistributed elsewhere

iii) ASCII                                                                                                                    [1½]

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

c) Using 10-bits binary number system, perform the following decimal operation using two’s complement.                                                                                                                                   [6]

12910 - 12810

+129 = 00 1000 0001

128 = 00 1000 0000

-128 = 11 0111 1111 (ones complement)

                            +1

          11 1000 0000 (Twos complement)

129- 128

     00 1000 0001

+ 11 1000 0000

 100 0000 0001

Hence = 00 0000 00012 or 12 (the overflow bit is ignored)

17. a) i) Explain the term search as used in the Internet.                                            [2]

A web based application that locates items or information from the World Wide Web

ii) Peter intends to download a movie from the Internet. State the three factors that may determine the total time taken to complete the download.                                           [3]

  • Size of the video/format
  • The bandwidth of the media/speed of network/network traffic
  • Type of browser software
  • Background activities running in the computer
  • Restrictions enforced in the computer/firewall/antivirus
  • Speed of the computer/CPU speed
  • Size of RAM

b) Wakulima online is an organization that runs a web based system for assisting farmers to obtain market for their produce. State four technological reasons that may cause a farmer not to access the organization’s system.                                                                                  [4]

  • Poor network/lack of connection
  • Software failure in the system
  • Hardware failure
  • Lack of access rights
  • System overload/hanging
  • Lack of skills/disability/illiteracy
  • Lack of power supply

c) Explain a situation when each of the following Desktop Publishing program features may be used when creating a publication:

i. Cropping                                                                                                               [2]

Applies to graphics – used to trim/remove/hide some portions in the graphics

ii. Transparency                                                                                                         [2]

Used to make background of a graphic to be clear/visible

d. List two areas where infrared waves are used in data communication.                             [2]

18. a) List four activities of the planning stage of systems development.                             Ignore this question, marks redistributed elsewhere

b) Explain a circumstance when each of the following feasibility studies are carried out during systems development.

i. Technical                                                                                                               [3]

Done to determine whether technology exists to support the proposed solution

 

ii. Economic                                                                                                              [3]

Done to determine whether the proposed solution is economically viable

 

iii. Schedule                                                                                                               [3]

Done to determine whether the proposed system can be done within an acceptable time.

c) Table 1 and Table 2 are related tables in a database. Use them to answer the questions that follow.

Table 1

Dept Code

Dept Name

001

Computer

002

Aviation

003

Engineering

 

Table 2

DeptID

Student Registration No.

Student’s Name

002

St01

Alex Too

003

St02

Naomi Komi

002

St03

Peter Kengo

 

i. Identify the appropriate primary key for each table.                    [2]

Table 1 – Dept code, Student Registration No

ii. Explain two benefits of enforcing referential integrity in the database. [4]

  • No record can be added in Table 2 if its corresponding record in Table 1 does not exist
  • No record in Table 1 can be deleted without first deleting the corresponding record in Table 2
  • Reduces data redundancies/ensures integrity
  • Prevents deletion of related table

19. a) Describe each of the following validation checks as used in data processing.

i. Preserve check                                                                                                      [2]

Ignore this question, marks redistributed elsewhere

ii. Data type check                                                                                                    [2]

Ensure correct type of data is entered for the field

iii. Check digit                                                                                                           [2]

This is a number added/calculated by the computer to a binary number. The check digit ensures correct transmission of the binary number.

b. Write each of the following abbreviations in full:

i) BCD                                                                                                                                    [1½]

Binary Coded Decimal

ii) EBCD                                                                                                                                 [

This question was thrown out and marks redistributed elsewhere

iii) ASCII                                                                                                                    [1½]

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

c) Using 10-bits binary number system, perform the following decimal operation using two’s complement.                                                                                                                                   [6]

12910 - 12810

+129 = 00 1000 0001

128 = 00 1000 0000

-128 = 11 0111 1111 (ones complement)

                            +1

          11 1000 0000 (Twos complement)

129- 128

     00 1000 0001

+ 11 1000 0000

 100 0000 0001

Hence = 00 0000 00012 or 12 (the overflow bit is ignored)

20. a) The figure shows a network design. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

NB/ The diagram dor 20 (a)  is at the bottom

 

b. Explain the function of each of the following in the network

I     Router                                                                                                             [2]

- connects school LAN to the Internet/identifies the best route for data transmission/forwards data packets between a computer network and the Internet

II   Firewall                                                                                                                                  [2]

Hardware/software that filters unauthorized access to or from the school’s LAN

III  File Server                                                                                                                                [2]

Provides location for shared files/disk access/resources

c. State two categories of software that must be installed in a computer so that users can use it to access the Internet.                                                                                                                                  [2]

  • Network operating system
  • Browser e.g. I.E, Mozila, Google (accept examples)
  • System drivers
  • Protocol

d) State four ways in which computers may be used to manage data in a research environment.         [4]

The guiding principle is the candidate must mention the use and the technology to score

e.g.

1. Use of databases in data manipulation (Technology is database and the use is data manipulation)

2. Use of scanner to aid in data capturing

3. Use of Internet to communicate researched work

4. Use of printers to generate reports

5. Use of databases r hard disk to store data

etc etc

e) Some computer companies have opted to use the Internet to provide shared processing resources and online application services to users. State three advantages that this approach will have on their customers.                                                                                                                                 [3]

- The guiding principle is benefit/enhancement to the customer

  • Customer will not be required to have powerful processing devices
  • Customers can access services from anywhere
  • There will be cost reduction for the customer
  • Customers can collaborate with remote users
  • Customers can access services at any time of the day
  • Customers can upload/backup work in the cloud/Internet
  1. SECTION A
  2.  Answer all questions in this section
  3. What is a computer?                                                                                                            1mks
  4. State three physical components that make up a computer                                                 3mks
  5. State the hardware technological differences between the second generation and third generation computers                                                                                                          2mks
  6. State and explain three characteristics of a computer                                                         3mks
  7. State the functions of the following special memories in a computer                                3mks
  8. Buffers
  9.  
  10. Registers
  11. Cache
  12.  
  13. Define the following as used in data representation in a computer                                  (5mks)
  14. Bit
  15.  
  16.  
  17. Byte
  18.  
  19.  
  20. Nibble
  21.  
  22.  
  23.  
  24. Word
  25.  
  26.  
  27.  
  28. Word-length
  29.  
  30.  
  31. State two reasons why a DVD is superior to a typical compact disk                               (2mks)
  32. State three advantages of flat panel monitors over cathode ray tube monitors                   3mks
  33. Explain the following terms as used in word processing                                                  3mks
  34. Section breaks
  35. Thesaurus
  36. Superscript
  37. State two advantages of  impact printers                                                                             2mks
  38. State the function of the following keys on the computer keyboard                                  3mks
  39. Enter key
  40. Insert key
  41. Delete key
  42. State the technology used by the following secondary devices to store data                      3mks
  43. Magnetic storage devices
  44. Solid state storage devices
  45. Optical storage devices
  46. State three reasons why an operating system is important in a computer                         3mks
  47. A typical computer’s main memory consists of both volatile and non-volatile memory.
  48. i)  Explain what is meant by the term volatile memory                                          (1mark)
  49. ii) What is normally stored in the non-volatile part of a computer’s main memory (1mark)
  50. Explain why having cache memory can improve the performance of the CPU         (2mks)
  51. What is a computer system?                                                                                           (1mk
  52. Give two differences between a solid state drive (SSD) and a hard disk drive (HDD)   2mks
  53. State three categories of software classified according User license agreement              (3mks)
  54. State two disadvantages of Random Access Memory                                                       (1mk)
  55.  
  56.  
  57. a) Explain the functions performed by the following components of a processor   (2 marks)
  58. Control unit

Define the term internet      1mk

  • The global interconnection of computer networks for purpose of communication and resource sharing

Explain the term web page    1mk

  • A hypertext  page prepared to display the content on the web

Explain the following internet address http://www.google.co.ke in reference to the structure of a URL    3mks

  • HTTP- hypertext transfer protocol
  • www – world wide web
  • google – the name of the computer with the web content
  • .com – commercial organization

 

What is the world wide web                                       1mk

  •  A virtual space on the internet that allows web pages and sites to be accessed

Define the term browser                                    1mk

  •  A software that used viewing of web content

Explain the meaning of the word hyperlink     1mk

  • A text or picture that is a link to another webpage on the internet

What is a search engine?     1mk

  • Is a special program that collects and stores links to information websites allowing users to search its database for them

Explain the meaning of the term internet service provider            1mk

  • A company that offers internet services to end-users

Identify three elements apart from a computer that is required for one to be connected to the internet    3mk

  • Modem
  • Internet software
  • Internet service provider
  • Telecommunication lines
  • TCP/IP protocols

 

Define the term modem 1mk

  • Stands for modulator-demodulator
  • A device that enables telecommunication to use telephone lines

What is a protocol? Write the following in full: TCP/IP, HTML, HTTP and FTP           5mks

  • Protocols – are special communication rules that govern sending and receiving of messages by computers on a network
  • Html – hypertext markup language
  • Hypertext transfer protocol
  • Transmission Control Protocol
  • Internet Protocol
  • File Transfer Protocol

What would you do if a website refused to load on the browser within the first attempt?   1mk

  • Click the refresh button on the toolbar

 State three internet services                         3mks

  • Instant messaging
  • E-mails
  • E-commerce
  • Social media and networks
  • E-learning

 

Define the term internet telephony      1mk

  • Transmission of voice data over the internet

State three benefits of the internet in our society

  • Provides a platform for conducting business and marketing
  • Provides many platforms such as social media through which people can contact each other
  • Cost saving
  • Efficient communication